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SEMINARSKI RAD br[1] Aleksandar Arsić

SEMINARSKI RAD br[1] Aleksandar Arsić

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VISOKA TEHNIČKA ŠKOLA – STRUKOVNIH STUDIJA

KRAGUJEVAC
SEMINARSKI RAD IZ PREDMETA LOGISTIKA br.1
TRANSPORT KAO LOGISTIČKA FUNKCIJA
st!"#t$ Ars%& A'"(s)#!)r
s*"r$ S)+br)&),
!+-#s(" st!%," . VI s"*"st)r /
Pr+0"s+r$ M%r+s')1 2+3+1%&
MAJ 4556.
TRANSPORT KAO LOGISTIČKA FUNKCIJA
SADR7AJ$
1.UVOD ...........................................................................................................................3
1.1. SAOBRAĆAJ KAO PRIVREDNA DELATNOST ....................................................3
4. PODELA TRANSPORTA ...................................................................................3
2.1. UNUTRAŠNJI TRANSPORT ....................................................................................4
2.2. SPOLJNI TRANSPORT ..............................................................................................5
2.2.1. KARAKTERISTIKE VIDOVA SPOLJNOG TRANSPORTA ...................5
2.3. INTERMODALNE USLUGE ...................................................................................10
8. IZ2OR TRANSPORTNOG VIDA ...............................................................12
9. IZ2OR PREVOZNIKA ....................................................................................13
4.1 PRINCIPI U TRANSPORTU .....................................................................................14
:. TROŠKOVI TRANSPORTA .........................................................................16
2
TRANSPORT KAO LOGISTIČKA FUNKCIJA
1. UVOD
1.1.S)+br)&), ()+ -r%1r"!#) !"')t#+st
U s!"#$#%&$ #'(%($s'&$ )#("&*$ s(+",* s# %*-#.,# s$)" s$(s)/%($
(+/.,0 $)#"&*/%# 1"(&2!(3%*# & 2%-*%($ 1"&!"#3%($ 3#/)%(.,0. N*#4(!
s$(s)/%(s) s# (4/#3 0 )($# .)( s# 2 ("4%&25&*0 & &2!".#%*# 1"(5#s )"%s1(")
%460*# 1(s#+% "3% s%4 & )"%s1(")% s"#3s)!.
S(+",*% 3#/)%(s) -&%& *#3% (3 2%-*%&7 8')(" 3"0.)!#%# 3#/)%(s)&9 '(*
&s)(!"#$#%( 1"#3s)!/* s$(s)/%0 1"&!"#3%0 (+/s)9 /& & 2%-*% 1"#30s/(! 2 "2!(*
3"04&7 1"&!"#3%&7 (+/s)&.
S(+",* '( 1"&!"#3% 3#/)%(s) s)&$0/&.# "2!(* &%30s)"&*# (+!/**0,& 80%'5&*0
1"#!(2&(5 $s(!%&7 '(/&-&% 1"(&2!(3.
S(+",* 2%)%( 0)&-# & % 0+"2%*# (+") s"#3s)!. P(+(/*.%*#$ +"2&%#
'"#)%*9 "#3(!&)(s)& & s&40"%(s)& 3(1"&%(s& 3 s# s"#3s)! '(* s0 0/(6#% 0 1"(&2!(3%*0
"(+ .)( 1"# !")# &2 1"(5#s 1"($#) 0 1"(5#s 1"(&2!(3%*#.
T"%s1(") 1"#3s)!/* *#3% (3 '/*0-%&7 #/#$#%) s '(*&$ s# $(6# "5&(%/&s)&.
D +& s# 0s1#.%( 01"!&*/( )"%s1(")%&$ ')&!%(s)&$9 )"#+/( +& 1(2%!)& s!# !"s)#
)"%s1(") & %*&7(!# '"')#"&s)&'#.
4. PODELA TRANSPORTA
:3)' /(4&s)&'# ;/(4&s)&-'(4 $#%36$#%)< *# %/&2 s!&7 ')&!%(s)& 0
1"#302#,09 1")#,& )('(!# "#1"($)#"&*/ % 0/20 0 1"#302#,# ;0/2% /(4&s)&'<9 )('(!#
"#1"($)#"&*/ & 1(/01"(&2!(3 '"(2 1"#302#,# ;&%)#"% /(4&s)&'< & )('(!# 8&%/%&7
1"(&2!(3 & "(+ ;&2/2% /(4&s)&'<. G/!%0 '"&'0 '(3 s!&7 (!&7 ')&!%(s)& 01"!(
1"#3s)!/* s(+",*9 (3%(s%( )"%s1("). N (s%(!0 4("# %!#3#%&7 )('(!
"#1"($)#"&*/9 1(/01"(&2!(3 & 4()(!&7 1"(&2!(39 $(6#$( %1"!&)& "2/&'0 &2$#=0>
U#tr);#,"< .%#t"r#+</ tr)#s-+rt) & S-+',#+< ."(st"r#+</ tr)#s-+rt).

SNABDEVANJE PROIZVODNJA
KORISNIK
SPOLJNI
INTERNI
INTERNACION. REGIONALNI LOKALNI
slika2.1. Podela transporta
3
TRANSPORT KAO LOGISTIČKA FUNKCIJA
4.1. U#tr);#,% tr)#s-+rt
U#tr);#,% tr)#s-+rt 1"#3s)!/* /(4&s)&-'& 1"(5#s (3 &202#)%(4 2%-* %# s$(
2)( .)( *# (%9 0 s)!"&9 ?'"!()('@ ("4%&2$ 1"#302#,9 !#, 2)( .)( 0 !#/&'(* $#"& 0)&-#
% 1(s/(!%# "#20/))#. V#/&-&% (!(4 0)&5* (4/#3 s# 0 -&%*#%&5& 3 )"(.'(!& 0%0)".%*#4
)"%s1(") &2%(s# (3 10 3( A0B 0'01%&7 )"(.'(! 1(s/(!%*. P(3 0%0)".%*&$
)"%s1(")($ 1(3"20$#!$( 3&2%*#9 1"#%(.#%*# & (3/4%*# s!'# !"s)# $)#"&*/ &
1"(&2!(39 +#2 (+2&" % !#/&-&%09 (+/&' & )#6&%0 0 1"(&2!(3%($ 1"(5#s0. U 0%0)".%*&
)"%s1(") s13*0 & "3(!& ('( 1/%&"%* & ("4%&25&*# )# 3#/)%(s)& & 0s'/=&!%*#
1()10%# 1(!#2%(s)& &2$#=0 1"(&2!(3%*# & )"%s1("). P(.)( s0 )"(.'(!& )"%s1(")
3&"#')%( 1"(1("5&(%/%& s !"#$#%($9 )"#+ )( !"#$# .)( !&.# s'")&)&. T( s'",#%*#
)"%s1(")%(4 !"#$#% $(6# s# 1(s)&,& ("4%&25&*($ & $#7%&25&*($. S'",#%*# !"#C
$#% '(3 $#7%&25&*# 1(s)&6# s# 01()"#+($ %*1"&'/3%&*&7 )"%s1(")%&7 s"#3s)!.
T"%s1(")% s"#3s)! ($(40,!*0 0.)#30 % 1"(s)("0 0 "3&(%&5$ & s'/3&.)&$9 +&/(
1(!#,%*#$ +"2&%# '"#)%* $)#"&*/9 +&/( (s/(+(=#%*#$ 1(!".&%# )/ 0 "3&(%&5& '(
'(3 '"06%&7 1"#%(s. M#7%&25&* 0%0)".%*#4 )"%s1(") ($(40,! 1(!#,%*# 0-&%'
'(3 1"(&2!(3%*# & 2%)%( 1(!#,%*# 1"(&2!(3%(s)&.
U (3%(s0 % 1(3 ;s'/3&.)9 "3&(%&5#<9 0%0)".%*& )"%s1(") $(6#$( 1(3#/&)& %>
C )"%s1(") '(*& s# (3!&* 1( 1(30 ;s/.2.1.1.<
C )"%s1(") '(*& s# (3!&* &s1(3 1(3 ;s/.2.1.1<
C )"%s1(") '(*& s# (3!&* &2%3 1(3 ;s/.2.1.1<
slika 2.1.1. Sredstva unutrašnjeg transporta
4
TRANSPORT KAO LOGISTIČKA FUNKCIJA
Transport po podu (3!&* s# 1($(,0 )"%s1(")%&7 s"#3s)! '(* s# '"#,0 1(
1(30 "3&(%&5#9 (3%(s%( s'/3&.). O! s"#3s)! $(40 3 +030 !#2% 2 /&%&*0 '"#)%*
&/& 3 s# '"#,0 1()10%( s/(+(3%(.
T"%s1(") &s1(3 1(3 *# '"')#"&s)&-% 1( )($# .)( s# )"%s1(")%& 1"(5#s (3!&*
&s1(3 1(!"s&%# 1(3. @P(32#$%&@ )"%s1(") %# 202&$ 1"(s)("9 '(*& (s)*# %
"s1(/4%*0 2 s$#.)* s"#3s)! 2 "3 ;$.&%<9 '"#)%*# "3%&' & 5&"'0/5&*0
)"%s1(") '(*& s# (3!&* 1( 1(30.
Transport iznad poda s# (3!&* &2%3 )#7%(/(.'(4 1"(5#s9 (3%(s%( &2%3
4/! "3%&'9 (s/(+3**0,& 1(!".&%0 "3&(%&5# 2 s$#.)* $.&% & "3%&'.
4.4. S-+',#% tr)#s-+rt
S-+',#% tr)#s-+rt C 1(3 s1(/*%&$ )"%s1(")($ 1(3"20$#!$( )"%s1(") "(+
&2$#=0 s'/3&.) 1"(&2!(=- & s'/3&.) '0159 (3%(s%(9 )"4(!5. D#/&$( 4 %>
C K(1%#%&
C V(3%&
C V230.%& &
C PTT
K(1%#%& )"%s1(") 0 (3%(s0 % s(+",*%& 10) 1( '($# s# (3!&* $(6#$(
1(3#/&)& %>
= D"0$s'&9
= 7#/#2%&-'&& &
= C#!%&.
V(3%& )"%s1(") 1"#$ &s)(* 1(3#/& 3#/&$( %>
= R#-%&9
= P($("s'&9
= J#2#"s'& &
= K%/s'&
V230.%& )"%s1(") s# (3!&* !230.%&$ 10)#!&$ ;'("&3("&$<
PTT s/06& 3 +& (+!/*/& s(+",*%# "3%*# !#2%# 2 1"#%(s "#-&9 !#s)& & s/&'#9 1
0 2!&s%(s)& (3 %-&% 1"#%(.#%* (!* )"%s1(") $(6# +&)&>
C T#/#4"8s'&9
C R3&()#/#4"8s'&9
C T#/#8(%s'&9
C T#/#!&2&*s'&
4.4.1. K)r)(t"r%st%(" 1%!+1) s-+',#+< tr)#s-+rt)
7"'">#%?(% tr)#s-+rt D E#/#2%&5 s s!(*&$ '"')#"&s)&'$ & '($1")&!%&$
1"#3%(s)&$ 1"#3s)!/* !"/( 2%-*%(4 1"#!(2%&' 0 $#=0%"(3%($ & 0%0)".%*#$
5
TRANSPORT KAO LOGISTIČKA FUNKCIJA
)"%s1(")0.
Os%(!% '"')#"&s)&' 6#/#2%&-'(4 )"%s1(") *#s)# 1"#!(2%& '15&)#) '(*& %03&
6#/#2%&5 2 $s(!%0 "(+0 & %&s'(!"#3%0 "(+0 '(* %# 27)#! "#/)&!%( !#/&'# +"2&%#
3(s)!#. P("#3 (!(4 +#2+#3%(s)9 "#3(!&)(s)9 & 0"#3%(s) s0 2%-*%# '"')#"&s)&'#
6#/#2%&-'(4 )"%s1("). U 1"(5#s0 )"%s1(") $(40 +&)& 04"(6#%& "(+ & /&59 1 *# &2 )(4
"2/(4 +#2+#3%(s) !"/( 2%-*% 1"& (3+&"0 !&3 1"#!(2. B#2+#3%(s) '(3 6#/#2%&-'(4
)"%s1(") *# 2%)%( !#, 0 (3%(s0 % 3"0$s'&. K("&s%&5& 0s/04 6#/#2%&-'(4 )"%s1(")
$(40 +&)& s&40"%& 3 $(40 '("&s)&)& %*#%# 0s/04# 1( 1/%&"%($ "#30 !(6%*# ;+#2 (+2&"
% !"#$#%s'# & 3"04# 0s/(!#<9 .)( ($(40,! "#3(!&)(s) '( *#3% (3 +&)%&7
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1/%&"%(4 "#3 !(6%*#9 +/4(!"#$#%(4 &%8("$&s%* '("&s%&' ( &s1("05& "(+#9 '( &
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%#2!&s% *# (3 '/&$)s'&7 & !"#$#%s'&7 0s/(!9 %&s'& )"(.'(!& % 1"#!(2%($ 10)09 %&s'&
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!#' & 3 *# 27!/*0*0,& s!(*&$ '($1")&!%&$ 1"#3%(s)&$9 "2!(*#$ 0)($(+&/s'#
&%30s)"&*# & "2!(*#$ 10)%# $"#6#9 3%s 1(s)( 1"!(s)#1#%& Fs(+",*%& 8')("F9 &
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1"#$ %$#%&> % *!%& 1"#!(2 & 1"#!(2 2 s(1s)!#%# 1()"#+#G 1"#$ %-&%0 ("4%&25&*#>
% /&%&*s'& 1"#!(2 & s/(+(3%& 1"#!(2G 1"#$ )#"&)("&*/%&$ (+#/#6*&$> % 0%0)".%*& &
$#=0%"(3%&.
Os%(!% (s(+&% 3"0$s'(4 )"%s1(") (4/#3 s# 0 #/s)&-%(s)& )"%s1(")%&7
*#3&%&5 .)( ($(40,! 1"#!(2 "(+# 1( 1"&%5&10 F(3 !") 3( !")F. D"04 !6%
(s(+&% 3"0$s'(4 )"%s1(") (4/#3 s# 0 3(+"&$ )#7%(/(.'&$ 1#"8("$%s$ s"#3s)!
3"0$s'(4 )"%s1(") '( .)( s0> *#3%(s)!% $%&10/5&*9 !#, 1('"#)/*&!(s) &
3(s)01%(s)9 1"&/4(=#%(s) (+/&'0 & !#/&-&%& )#"#) &)3. T'(=# *#3% (3 (s(+&% '(*
'"')#"&.# 3"0$s'& )"%s1(") (3%(s& s# % $(40,%(s) )"%s1(")%&7 *#3&%&5 3 &$*0
.&"(' s1#"')" s1#5&*/%&7 '"')#"&s)&' ;(3 /'(4 3(s)!%(4 !(2&/ 3( !(2&/ 2 1"#!(2
)#.'&7 &/& s1#5&*/%&7 )#"#)<.
P"#3%(s)& (!(4 !&3 )"%s1(") s0 s/#3#,#> $(40,%(s) 3&"#')%(4 1"#!(2 F(3 !")
3( !")F9 $/& #'s1/)5&(%& )"(.'(!& !#2%& 2 1(-#)%(C2!".%# (1#"5&*#9 '( & '")'
23"6!%* % 1(-#)%(C2!".%&$ (1#"5&*$9 !#/&' 40s)&% s(+",*%# $"#6#9
'(%'0"#%)%& 0'01%& )"(.'(!& '(3 1"#!(2 % '")'&$ & s"#3%*&$ 03/*#%(s)&$9 "#/)&!%
%#2!&s%(s) 1"#!(2%&7 *#3&%&5 (3 &%8"s)"0')0"#9 3(+" 1(023%(s) & 0"#3%(s)9
'($#"5&*/% +"2&% 1"#!(29 +(/*# (+#2+#=#%*# "(+# 1"& 1"#!(209 $(40,%(s)
6
TRANSPORT KAO LOGISTIČKA FUNKCIJA
'($+&%(!%* s 3"04&$ !&3(!&$ 1"#!(2 ;(3C3( 1"&s)%&.)9 #"(3"($9 6#/#2%&-'&7
s)%&5<9 (1"!3%(s) 1"& 1"#!(20 +"2('!"/*&!# & s'01(5#%# "(+# % 306&$ "#/5&*$9
(+!/*%*# 1"#!(2 0 80%'5&*& %s)!' 1"(&2!(3%*#.
N#3(s)5& (!(4 !&3 1"#!(2 (4/#3*0 s# 0 s/#3#,&$ (s(+&%$> !#/&' 1()"(.%*
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(s#)/*&!(s) % !"#$#%s'# %#1"&/&'#9 3"0$s' 1"#!(2% s"#3s)! s# '("&s)# %*-#.,#> %
'")'&$ "s)(*%*&$9 % !#,&$ "s)(*%*&$ s$( 2 /'( '!"/*&!0 "(+0 & 2
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C"1#% tr)#s-+rt D N*1(!(/*%&* 1"&$#% (!(4 !&3 )"%s1(") (3%(s& s# %
1"#!(2 8/0&3. N*-#.,# *# )( s&"(! %8) & %8)%& 3#"&!)&9 0 1(s/#3%*# !"#$#
#'s1#"&$#%)&.# s# & s )"%s1(")($ -!"s)&7 1"(&2!(3 '(*& 1/0)*0 0 )#-%(s)&. O4/#3 s#
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P"#3%(s)& (!(4 !&3 1"#!(2 s0 s/#3#,#> !&s(' 1(023%(s)9 !#/&'& '15&)#)
1"#!(29 !&s(' 1"(30')&!%(s)9 !&s(' s)#1#% $#7%&25&*#9 !&s(' s)#1#% 7#"$#)&-%(s)&9
%#1"#'&3%(s) )('9 %&s'& (1#")&!%& )"(.'(!&9 $s(!% )"%s1(") )#-%&7 & 4s(!&)&7
#%#"4#)s'&7 s&"(!&%9 +"2&% & s&40"%(s)9 $/ 1()"(.%* 4("&!9 !&s(' s)#1#% 2.)&)# "(+#9
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1#"&(3 &24"3%*# &%8"s)"0')0"# '( & !&s('& )"(.'(!& &s)(4.
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s(+",*%($ s&s)#$09 1(s#+%( 0 $#=0%"(3%(* "(+%(* "2$#%&. P"#3(3"#=#% *# 2
1"#!(2 $s(!%# "(+#9 (+&-%( %&s'&7 !"#3%(s)& '(*# %# 27)#!*0 !#/&'# +"2&%# 3(s)!#.
:+(4 !#/&'# %(s&!(s)& & %&s'&7 5#%9 !(3%& )"%s1(") *# %*1(!(/*%&*& %# s$( 0
1"#'(('#%s'&$ 1"#!(2&$ %#4( & 0 1"#!(2&$ s (+/# % (+/0 *#3%(4 '(%)&%#%).
P(2&)&!%# '"')#"&s)&'# (!(4 )"%s1(") s0 s/#3#,#> %*%&6& )"(.'(!& )"%s1(")9
!#/&' 1"(10s% s1(s(+%(s) 1/(!%&7 10)#! (4"%&-#% *#3&%( '15&)#)&$ /0'9 !#/&'&
1"#!(2%& '15&)#)&9 #'(/(.'& %# 24=0*# 6&!()%0 s"#3&%09 !#, +#2+#3%(s) & 1(023%(s) &
$(40,%(s) )"%s1(") s!&7 !"s) "(+9 $(40,%(s) '($+&%(!%* s 3"04&$ !&3(!&$
1"#!(2 ;3"0$s'&$9 6#/#2%&-'&$<9 3($&%&" 0 &%)#"%5&(%/%($ 1"#!(209 2%)%( %&6&
'(#8&5&*#%) )"# ;(3%(s s(1s)!#%# $s# & %(s&!(s)&< 0 (3%(s0 % 3"04# !&3(!# )"%s1(").
N#3(s)5& !(3%(4 )"%s1(") s0 > s'01 "2!(* &%8"s)"0')0"# /0'#9 s/(6#% s&s)#$
$%&10/)&!%&7 "3%*&9 !#/&'& 0)&5* F!&.# s&/#F ;/#39 !#)"9 $4/9 %&2' & !&s(' !(3(s)*9
1/&$ & (s#'<9 2!&s%(s) )"%s1(")%# s1(s(+%(s)& (3 1"(10s%# s1(s(+%(s)& /0' &
1"(&2!(3%(s)& %*#%# $#7%&25&*#9 306&% )"*%* 1(-#)%(C2!".%&7 (1#"5&* *# 306
%#4( '(3 (s)/&7 !&3(! 1"#!(2.
V)>!;#% tr)#s-+rt C A!&()"%s1(") *# s1#5&8&-% 1( s!(*(* !&s('(* +"2&%&
)"%s1(")9 !&s('&$ )"(.'(!&$ & !&s('(* 1(023%(s)&. :+(4 !&s('&7 )"(.'(! )"%s1(")9
1"#!(2 *# @(4"%&-#%@ % "(+0 '(* &$ !#/&'& 2%-*9 $/0 )#6&%0 &/& !&s('0 s1#5&8&-%0
5#%0 ;1(.)9 %'&)9 0$#)%&-' 3#/...< &/& % "(+0 '(* s# )"%s1(")0*# 0 0s/(!&$ '3
5#% %&*# +&)% ;1"&"(3%# ')s)"(8#9 !(*% )#7%&' 0 ")%&$9 /& & $&"%(3(1s'&$
0s/(!&$<. O!( *# &$/( 2 1(s/#3&50 3 s# !&()"%s1(") )"#)&" '( 10)%&-'& )"%s1(")9
1(.)( 1"#'( A0B '&/($#)"C)(% (s)!"#%&7 0 !&(1"#!(20 -&%& 1"#!(2 10)%&'9 $%*#
H
TRANSPORT KAO LOGISTIČKA FUNKCIJA
(3 *#3%(4 1"(5#%) 0'01%( 1"#!#2#%&7 '&/($#)"C)(% "(+# 1"&13 !&(1"#!(20. O!(
&$ 2 1(s/#3&50 3 s# 1"#!(2 "(+# )"#)&" '( F%0s1(*!F 1"#!(2 10)%&'.
K( '(3 3"0$s'(4 & !(3%(4 1"#!(29 %& !&( 1"#!(2%&5& %# &24"=0*0
&%8"s)"0')0"0 %#(17(3%0 2 (+!/*%*# !&()"%s1("). A#"(3"($& s0 !/s%&.)!(
1(s#+%&7 ("4%&25&* ;3"6!%&7 &/& 1"&!)%&7<9 3(' !&(1"#!(2%&5& s$( '("&s)# 0s/04#
#"(3"($. O3 !&(1"#!(2%&' s# (-#'0*# 3 &%!#s)&"*0 0 /#)#/&5# ;10)%&-'& & )#"#)%&
!&(%&9 7#/&'(1)#"&9 1 -' & "'#)# 2 )"%s1(") s)#/&) 0 ("+&)0< & 0 '3"(!# %#(17(3%# 2
01"!/*%*# & (3"6!%*# /#)#/&5.
U )+#/& 2.2.1.1. 3) *# "#/)&!%& (3%(s& (1#")&!%&7 '"')#"&s)&' (s%(!%&7 !&3(!
)"%s1(") (5#%$ (3 1 D 5 ;1C%*+(/* '"')#"&s)&*9 5C%*/(.&* '"')#"&s)&'<
K)r)(t"r%st%("
R)#<+1%
7"',">#%@
)
Dr*s(% V)>!;#% V+!"#% C"1#%
2r>%#) -r"1+>) = (-#+ 8 4 1 9 1A:
2r>%#) !+ :55 (* 8 1 4 9 1A:
2r>%#) -r"(+ :55 (* 4 8 1 9 1A:
K)-)@%t"t -r"1+>) 8 9 : 1A4 1A4
E')st%?#+st -r"1+>) 8 1 4 9 :
P+>!)#+st = r"!#+st 4 8 : 9 1
2">b"!#+st 4 : 8 9 1
R)s-+'+3%1+st A !+st-#+st 4 1 8 9 :
Fr"(1"#t#+st =
(+#t%#)'#+st
9 4 8 : 1
O-"r)t%1#% tr+;(+1% 8 9 : 4 1
tabela 2.2.1.1.
U )+#/& 2.2.1.2. s0 3)& s))&s)&-'& 1(35& ( 0-#.,0 1(*#3&%&7 !&3(! )"%s1(")
SADC0 & 2#$/*$ EU.
M+! U?";&" .USA/
BCD
U?";&" 16E5
.EU/ BCD
U?";&" 166:
.EU/ BCD
Vr"*" %s-+r("
B!)#)D
Dr*s(% H5 50 H2 4
7"'">#%?(% 15 32 15 10
P+*+rs(% I NJA NJA 15
V)>!;#% 1.2 NJA NJA 1
tabela 2.2.1.2.
I
TRANSPORT KAO LOGISTIČKA FUNKCIJA
U )+#/& 2.2.1.3. *# 3) 1"&'2 )"(.'(! 1(*#3&%&7 !&3(! )"%s1(") 0 SADC0.
M+! .FG55 (*/ .HG55 (*/
D+*)&% M"!,#)r+!#% D+*)&% M"!,#)r+!#%
Dr*s(% 1 1 1 1
7"'">#%?(% 0.05 0.05 0.25 0.1
P+*+rs(% NJA 0.22 NJA NJA
V)>!;#% 1.I6 2.2H 10 5.5
taela 2.2.1.3.
N 3&*4"$0 2.2.1.1. 3) *# 1"&'2 '($1"5&*# 1"#!(2 & %*&7(!( 0-#.,# ;B< 0
)"%s1(")0 "(+9 (3 1A4H.4(3. 1 3( 1AI5.4(3.
dijagram 2.2.1.1.
A
TRANSPORT KAO LOGISTIČKA FUNKCIJA
A % 3&*4"$0 2.2.1.2. 1"&'2% '($1"5&* 3"0$s'(4 & 6#/#2%&-'(4 1"#!(2
'"(2 (3%(s )"(.'(! 0 2!&s%(s)& (3 1"#=#%(4 10).
dijagram 2.2.1.2.
4.8.I#t"r*+!)'#" s'<"
S (+2&"($ % s!# !#,0 1()"#+0 0'"01%*!%* )#"#) & 1"&$#%0 /(4&s)&-'&7
*#3&%&59 5#%)"/%& 1"(+/#$ 0 (+/s)& &2+(" !&3 )"%s1(") *#s)# &2+(" (1)&$/%&7
&%)#"$(3/%&7 /%59 -&* "#/&25&* (+*#3&%*0*# 1"&$#%0 "2/&-&)&7 !&3(! )"%s1(")9
3'/# drumski9 vazdušni, pomorski, rečni i železnički9 0'/*0-0*0,& & '(%5#1)# "#/&25&*#
02 1"&$#%0 %1"&$#" (3"#=#%# s)")#4&*# konsolidacije9 cross docking &/& mergein
transit.
S!"#$#%# )#7(/(4&*# $%&10/5&*# & 1("s) $#3*0%"(3%# "2$#%# 0)&5/& s0 %
1("s) '("&.,#%* 1($("s'(4 6#/#2%&-'(4 )"%s1(") 2 1"#!(2 0'"01%*#%&7 /(4&s)&-'&7
*#3&%&5
E#/#2%&5# s0 s# 0 1(-#)'0 @(1&"/#@ &%)#%2&!&"%*0 &%)#"$(3/%(4 )"%s1(") s
(+2&"($ 3 *# )( 27)#!/( &%!#s)&"%*# 0 (34(!"*0,0 $%&10/)&!%0 (1"#$09 /&
4#%#"/%( 4/#3%( 3%s s# 0 s!# !#,(* $#"& (!* !&3 )"%s1(") 0'/*0-0*# 0 &%)#"$(3/%#
/%5#.
S 3"04# s)"%# 1($("s'# /0'# s0 2%)%( &%!#s)&"/# 0 (1"#$0 2 $%&10/5&*0
'(%)#%#". T'( s0 1($("s'& 1"#!(2&(5& &'( 0 1(-#)'0 )"3&5&(%/%& )"%s1(")#"& "s0)(4
)#"#) 1"&7!)&/& 0 2%-*%(* $#"& &%)#"$(3/%# )"%s1(")%# *#3&%&5#
10
TRANSPORT KAO LOGISTIČKA FUNKCIJA
T'( 3%s 0 1($("s'($ )"%s1(")0 '(%)#%#" 0-#s)!0*0 +"(3(!& (4"($%(4
'15&)#). P"& )($#9 /0'# 1#"$%#%)%( &%!#s)&"*0 0 1"#)(!"%( $%&10/)&!%0 (1"#$0 0
5&/*0 0+"2%* (1s/04# )&7 !#/&'&7 '(%)#%#"s'&7 +"(3(!.
Is)( )'(9 1($("s'# /0'# &%!#s)&"*0 & % @'(1%#%(* s)"%&@ s 5&/*#$ +(/*#4
1(!#2&!%* s 3"0$s'&$ & 6#/#2%&-'&$ )"%s1(")($. N(9 2+(4 8/#'s&+&/%(s)& &
1(023%(s)& 3"0$s'& )"%s1(") & 3/*# 202&$ 1"!( $#s)( 1( "#/&2(!%($ )"%s1(")%($
"30.
K+#s+'%!)@%,) C P"#3s)!/* 1"(5#s @0'"01%*!%*@ 0 '($# s# 1( 1"&*#$0 "(+# 0
$/&$ *#3&%&5$ & '(/&-&%$ 8("$&"*09 %'(% (3"#=#%(4 !"#$#% '0$0/&"%*9 !#,#
0'"01%*#%# *#3&%&5# )#"#) ;%*-#.,# '(%)#%#"&<.
S!"7 )(4 *#s)# s$%*#%*# )"(.'(! $%&10/5&*# '(*& +& 1"(&s)#'/& ()1"#$($
1(*#3&%-%&7 $%*&7 *#3&%5. A')&!%(s)& &2 (!(4 3($#% 8('0s&"*0 s# %*-#.,# % .)(
+(/*# '("&.,#%*# s)%3"3%&7 '(%)#%#" ;20K9 40K9 '(%)#%#" 2 !230.%& s(+",*9 &/& 1'
)(!"%&7 s%30' !(2&/<. K(%s(/&35&* *# )"3&5&(%/%( !#($ 1"(8&)+&/% 80%'5&*
8&"$& 3!/5 /(4&s)&-'# 0s/04# ;%1"&$#" .1#3&)#"<. N'01/*%*#$ $%*&7 *#3&%&5
.1#3&)#" *# 0 1(2&5&*& 3 0'"01%*!%*#$ )&7 *#3&%&5 0 '(%)#%#"# & 3"04# !#,# /(4&s)&-'#
*#3&%&5#9 '( & 0 )"%s1(")% s"#3s)! !#,# %(s&!(s)&9 (+#2+#3& %&60 5#%0 1"#!(2 & 3 %
)* %-&% (s)!"& 1"(8&).
slika 2.3.1. Prikaz ukrupnjeni! manji! jedinica u kontener
L0%'5&* s01"()% (!(* *#s)# 3#'(%s(/&35&* '(* s# s1"(!(3& s 5&/*#$
"23!*%* 0'"01%*#%# 1(.&/*'# % 1(*#3&%# '("&s%&'#
O4"%&-#%* "s1(/(6&!(4 !"#$#% ;0'01%(4 5&'/0s< s0 '/*0-%& 8')(" 1"&
3#8&%&s%*0 (1)&$/%# s)")#4&*# '(%s(/&3(!%* ;0'01%( !"#$# 5&'/0s (2%-!
$'s&$/%& $(40,& +"(* 3% '(/&'( )"%s1(")#" &/& .1#3&)#" $(6# 3 23"6& "(+0 s
5&/*#$ 8("$&"%* !#,# 0'"01%*#%# *#3&%&5#<. K",# !"#$# 2%-& & $%*0 '(%s(/&3(!%0
*#3&%&50 & !#,# )"(.'(!# )"%s1(") & (+"%0)(.
O-&4/#3%( "#- *# ( (1)&$&25&(%($ 1"(+/#$0 D (1)&$&25&*& (3%(s %&!( 0s/04#
;!"#$#% &s1("0'#< & )"(.'(! )"%s1("). P"& )($# (3 2%-* *# &$)& 0 !&30 3 *# 4/!%&
1"#30s/(! 2 '(%s(/&35&*0 (34(!"*0,& &%8("$5&(%& s&s)#$ & @berza tereta@ .)( 2%-&
1(2%)# '(/&-&%# "(+ 0 %#'($ )"#%0)'0 &2$#3*0 (3"#3*#%&7 3#s)&%5&*.
T'(=#9 1"(+/#$ '(%s(/&35&*# 1(!#2% *# & s 1"(+/#$&$ (1)&$/%(4 1'(!%*
& )(!"#%* '(*& 1"#3s)!/**0 &202#)%( '($1/#'s%# 1"(+/#$# (1#"5&(%&7 &s)"6&!%*.
11
TRANSPORT KAO LOGISTIČKA FUNKCIJA
Cr+ss !+@(%#< C Os%(!% &3#* "ross docking '(%5#1) *# 0+"2%*# 1"()(' "(+#
+#2 23"6!%* 0 s'/3&.)0.
P"')&-%(9 !(2&/ (3 "2/&-&)&7 &s1("0-&(5 s)&60 % @cross-dock@ )-'0 ;'(* s#
$(6# "20$#)& '( $#s)( 3&"#')%(4 1"#)(!"< & 2)&$ s# 3&"#')%(9 &/& 02 $%*#
23"6!%*# 3&"#')%( 1"#)(!"*0 0 $%* !(2&/ '(* "(+0 3&"#')%( 3&s)"&+0&"*0
'("&s%&5&$. Js%(9 0 !(2&/ '(* !".# 3&s)"&+05&*0 3( '("&s%&' )(!"& s# @6#/*#%& $&M@
"(+# 1"&s1#/# % @5"(ss 3(5'@ )-'0.
O!( *# )&1&-% '(%5#1) s!"#$#%# 3&s)"&+05&*# 3( $/(1"(3*%&7 (+*#')9 )'(
)#"#) s# 1"')&-%( & %# s'/3&.)& !#, s# 3&"#')%( 1"#)(!" & )"%s8#"0*#9 .)( 0$%*0*#
0'01%# )"(.'(!# s'/3&.)#%* "(+#.
M "r<"=%#=tr)#s%t C ;s1*%*# 0 )"%2&)0< *# 7&+"&3 Fcross dockF '(%5#1).
P(3"20$#! s+&"%*# )"%2&)%&7 )('(! & %*&7(!0 2*#3%&-'0 "#/&25&*0 &2$#3*0
1(*#3&%&7 -!("(! $"#6#. O!* '(%5#1) 1(3"20$#! s)"&')%( 1(.)(!%*# 3#8&%&s%&7
!"#$#%s'&7 ('!&" ;3'/# +#2 '.%*#%*<. T'( %1"&$#" '( +& -#)&"& 40 s)(1%
'(%)#%#"9 )"#+/ 3 s# )"%s1(")0*0 0 s#')("0 )"%s1(")%# $"#6# (3 P(6#4# 3( S0+()&5#9
& '( 1"&s1#!*0 &2 -#)&"& "2/&-&) &2!("&.) & 010,0*0 s# % -#)&"& "2/&-&)# 3#s)&%5&*#9
$(40,# &7 *# 0)(!"&)& % &s)& !(2 % %!#3#%(* "#/5&*&.
O! 3! '(%5#1) ;Cross docking i Merge-in-transit# 2%-# 0 s)!"& 1"&$#%0 @just
in time@ '(%5#1) 0 )"%s1(")0 & ()03 1(3"20$#!*0 s)"&')%( 1(.)(!%*# 3#8&%&s%&7
!"#$#%s'&7 ('!&". N"!%(9 "#20/)) *# !#, #8&'s%(s) )"%s1(")9 s%&6!%*#
)"%s1(")%&7 )"(.'(! & $&%&$&25&* 2/&7 0 s&s)#$09 *#" s# s'/3&.)#%*# '3 *# 4(3 )(
$(40,# #/&$&%&.#.
S/&-%( '( 0 s/0-*0 1"&$#%# cross dock '(%5#1)9 mergeintransit 27)#!
%/&20 & (1)&$&25&*0 '(* s# (3%(s& % +/%s %#&s'("&.,#%(s)& )"%s1(")%&7 '15&)#)
;'3 s# (+*#3&%*0*# $%*# )#"#) %#4( .)( *# '15&)#) s"#3s)!< & )"(.'(! 2/&7 & -#'%*
% %'01/*%*# !#,# '(/&-&%# )#"#).
P"($(!&s%*# &%)#"$(3/%(s)& *#s)# s)")#.'( s"#3s)!( 0 s&s)#$s'($ 1"&s)010
"#/&25&*& )"%s1(")%&7 )('(!. U s0.)&%&9 )"%s1(")% 0s/04 s# 3*# 1( 1"&%5&10 @(3 !")
3( !")@9 %# (s/%**0,& s# % 1(*#3&%# $(3(!# '( %(s&(5#9 !#, s# &2+(" %*+(/*#
'($+&%5&*# !".& 0 1(s)01'0 (1)&$&25&*#. N )* %-&% 1(!#,! s# #8&'s%(s) )"%s1(")
& s%&6!*0 )"(.'(!&. C&/* *# 3#8&%&s%*# ('!&" 2 (1)&$/%0 &%)#4"5&*0 "2/&-&)&7 $(3(!
)"%s1(") '(* +& (+#2+#3&/ ("&*#%)&s% 1"#!(2 @(3 !") 3( !")@.
8.IZ2OR TRANSPORTNOG VIDA
T"%s1(")9 '( 3#( /(4&s)&'#9 &$ %#4)&!%0 "#10)5&*09 1(.)( *# )( /(4&s)&-'
80%'5&* '(* 202&$ 1"!( $#s)(9 &s1"#3 s!&7 (s)/&7 /(4&s)&-'&7 80%'5&*9 1( !&s&%&
)"(.'(!. S)(4 *#9 2 (1s)%' 8&"$#9 (3 '/*0-%(4 2%-* &2+")& (1)&$/%& )"%s1(")%&
!&3. I2+(" %-&% )"%s1(") ;)"%s1(")%(4 !&3 & )"%s1(")%(4 s"#3s)!< 0)&-# % s!#
(s)/# s#4$#%)# /(4&s)&-'(4 s&s)#$9 '( .)( s0> 1'(!%*#9 1"(&2!(3%*9 1/%&"%*#9
s'/3&.)#%*#9 /('5&* 1"(&2!(3%(4 s&s)#$9 &%8("$5&(%& s&s)#$9 01"!/*%*# 2/&7$
&)3. S!# %!#3#%# "#/5&*# !6# & 0 (+"%0)($ s$#"09 )'( 3 '( %#'& 1"(&2!(3 &$
0%1"#3 (3"#=#% %-&% 1'(!%*9 )"%s1(")%( s"#3s)!( $(" +&)& 1"&/&4(=#%(
)"%s1(")(!%*0 )(4 (+/&' 1'(!%*. K(%'"#)%(9 % &2+(" )"%s1(")%(4 !&39 /& &
)"%s1(")%(4 s"#3s)!9 0)&-0 s/#3#,& 8')("&>
12
TRANSPORT KAO LOGISTIČKA FUNKCIJA
N 2'(%s' "#40/)&!9
N 1(s)(*%*# ("4%&25&* '(*# s# 0s/06%( +!# 1"#!(2($9
N 8/#'s&+&/%(s) )"%s1(")%(4 !&3 C s"#3s)!9
N 3&"#')%& ;4/!%&< )"(.'(!& 1"#!(29
N s1("#3%& )"(.'(!& 1"#!(2 ;3"0$"&%#9 )'s#9 5"&%#9 /#6"&%#...<9
N )"(.'(!& (s&40"%* "(+# )('($ )"%s1(")9 s )&$ 0 !#2& & +#2+#3%(s) &
s&40"%(s) )"%s1(")9 (3%(s%(9 s)#1#% ;"&2&'< (.)#,#%* )"%s1(")(!%# "(+#9
N '15&)#) ;)"%s1(")% s1(s(+%(s)< )"%s1(")%(4 !&3 J s"#3s)!9
N $&%&$/% !#/&-&% 2 )"%s1(")9
N 1()"#+% (1"#$ ;&%8"s)"0')0"< 2 0)(!"9 1"#!(29 1"#)(!" & &s)(!"9
N 1()"#+# 0 1(4/#30 1'(!%*9
N !"#$# '(*# "(+ 1"(!#3# 0 )"%s1(")0 ;+"2&% )"%s1(")<9
N )-%(s)9 (3%(s%(9 1(023%(s) )"%s1(")%(4 !&3 C s"#3s)! ;!#"(!)%(, 3 ,#
!"#$# )"%s1(") +&)& *#3%'( 1"(5#%*#%($ C 0 (+2&" s# 02&$*0 $(40,
(3s)01%* (3 1/%&"%(4 !"#$#% )"%s1(")<9
N )"(.'(!& 3"6%* 2/&7 2 (+#2+#=#%*# 1"(&2!(3%*# 0 !"#$# )"%s1(")(!%*
%(!&7 '(/&-&% 3( s'/3&.)9
N s1#5&*/%& 27)#!& '( .)( s0 $(40,%(s) ;& 5#%< 1"($#%# (3"#3&.) 0 )('0
)"%s1(")9...
K3 s# "2$&./* ( #'(%($&-%(s)&9 (3%(s%( )"(.'(!&$ )"%s1(")9
1()"#+%( *# 1"!( "#s&)& 1"(+/#$ 0s1(s)!/*%* "#/5&*# &2$#=0 !"#3%(s)& "(+# & 3&"#')%&7
)"(.'(! )"%s1("). Us/#3 "2/&-&)# 1"&"(3# "(+# '(* s# )"%s1(")0*# "2/&-&)&$ !&3(!&$
)"%s1(")9 2 (!* 1"(+/#$ %&*# $(40,# 1"(%,& '!/&)#)%( "#.#%*#9 )# *# 1"&7!,#%(
'($1"($&s%( "#.#%*#> 0 "#/5&*0 s# s)!/**0 s"#3%* !"#3%(s) *#3%# )(%# )"%s1(")(!%#
"(+# % *#3% '&/($#)" 03/*#%(s)&. D(+&*#%# !"#3%(s)& s0 3)# 0 )+#/& 3.1.
VID TRANSPORTA B CENE PO )J'$
AVIO
219II
DRUMSKI
H9H0
:ELJE:NICKI
1943
CEVNI
092H
VODNI
0930
tabela 3.1.
9.IZ2OR PREVOZNIKA
13
TRANSPORT KAO LOGISTIČKA FUNKCIJA
I2+(" 1"#!(2%&' 1"#3s)!/* s1#5&8&-% (+/&' %+!'#9 1(.)( s# )&$#
(+#2+#=0*# 0s/04 '(* 3&"#'%( 0)&-# % 1"(5#s 1"(&2!(3%*# & 1(s)(*& (1s%(s) 3 s# %
)* %-&% 0%#s# !&s(' s)#1#% "&2&' s '(*&$ s# $(" "-0%)& 1"& &2"3& 1/% 1"(&2!(3%*#.
O3/0' ( 1"#!(2%&'0 0 s#+& s3"6&9 1"')&-%(9 3!# (3/0'#. J#3% s# (3%(s& % &2+(" !&3
)"%s1(")9 3"04 s# (3%(s& % &2+(" )"%s1(")%# ("4%&25&*# '(* 1"06 0s/04#
&2+"%&$ !&3($ )"%s1("). O#s)( s# /*03&9 1"&/&'($ 3(%(.#%* (!'!#9 /& & s/&-%#
(3/0'#9 04/!%($ (s/%**0 % 5#%0 '(*0 27)#! 1"#!(2%&'9 %# s7!)*0,& 3 '.%*#%*#
0 &s1("05& s&"(!&% $(6# 0s/(!&)& 20s)!/*%*# 1"(&2!(3%*#9 .)( 2 1(s/#3&50 $(6# &$)&
40+&)'# '(*& !&.#s)"0'( 1"#$.0*0 0.)#30 0-&%*#%0 &2+("($ *#8)&%&*#4 1"#!(2%&'. O!( *#
(-&4/#3% s&)05&* '(* %(s& s s(+($ /#'5&*0 '(*0 s!& *'( +"2( %0-#.
M#=0)&$ 1(s)(*# ('(/%(s)& '(*# %&s0 )'( (-&4/#3%#9 )'(=# %(s# s s(+($
)"(.'(!#9 /& %# )(/&'( (-&4/#3%# )"(.'(!#. U'(/&'( *# &2+"%& 1"#!(2%&' %#1(023%9
''( +& s# %#' ("4%&25&* (s&40"/ 3 %#,# $(")& 20s)!/*)& 1"(&2!(3%*0 2+(4
'.%*#%* &s1("0'# s&"(!&%9 1()"#+%( *# 3"6)& 1(!#,%0 '(/&-&%0 2/&7 s&"(!&%9 .)(
'"(2 )"(.'(!# 3"6%* )&7 2/&7 $(6# /'( 3(!#s)& 3( 1"#$.&!%* 0.)#3# 1(s)&4%0)#
&2+("($ *#8)&%&*#4 1"#!(2%&'. K( .)( *# "#-#%(9 (!& )"(.'(!& %&s0 (-&4/#3%& & $%(4#
("4%&25&*# % )* %-&% 1/,*0 3%' %#2%%*0 &s'2%($ )('($ &2+(" 1"#!(2%&'.
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14
TRANSPORT KAO LOGISTIČKA FUNKCIJA
I2 (!(4 1"(&2&/2& 3 s0 #/s)&-%(s) 1"&/4(=!%* '15&)#)($9 & !"#$#%s'
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3 "2/&'0*#$(>
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N +"2&%0 !(6%*# ;)( *# 1"(s#-% +"2&% '(*($ *#3%( s(+",*%( s"#3s)!( !(2&<
N '($#"5&*&%0 +"2&%0 &/& +"2&%0 10)(!%* ;)( *# +"2&% '(*($ s# "(+ &/& 10)%&'
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15
TRANSPORT KAO LOGISTIČKA FUNKCIJA
1/%&"%&$ %("$)&!&$. I2+(" s$(4 s(+",*%(4 s"#3s)! %"(-&)( 0)&-# % 80%'5&*0
(!(4 1"&%5&1.
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s(+",* 1('"&*0 .)( !#,0 )#"&)("&*0 *#3%(4 1(3"0-*.
Pr%*"#) -r%#@%-) r"!#+st% % t)?#+st% -r"1+>)
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'("&s%&'# s(+",*%&7 0s/04 2+(4 )(4 .)( (%& $("*0 2%)& '3 &$ s)(*# %
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1( "#30 !(6%*#.
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4"%#. R#-%& s(+",* 0s/#3 306&7 1"#'&3 "3 0 2&$s'($ 1#"&(30 %# $(6# 3 1"06&
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s(+",*%# 0s/04#.
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'(%'0"#%)%(s) % )"6&.)0.
16
TRANSPORT KAO LOGISTIČKA FUNKCIJA
I2 (!(4 s# !&3& 3 *# 1"& (3/05& ( &2+("0 !&3 )"%s1(") '("&s%&'0 0 &%)#"#s0 3
1/)& .)( $%*# % &$# )"(.'(! )"%s1(") ;1"#!(2<.
J. TROŠKOVI TRANSPORTA
T"(.'(!& )"%s1(") (+07!)*0>
N 3&"#')%# )"(.'(!# )"%s1(")> 5#% 1"#!(2 '(3 &2+"%(4 1"#!(2%&' &/&
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)"(.' !(2- ;1/)9 3%#!%&5#9 %(,#%*...<
N &%3&"#')%# )"(.'(!# )"%s1(")> )"(.'(!& $(")&25&*# )"%s1(")%(4 s"#3s)!9
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I2 s!#4 4("# %!#3#%(4 $(6#$( 2'/*0-&)& 3 )"%s1(") 1"#3s)!/* '/*0-%& 3#(
1"(&2!(3%(4 1"(5#s9 & 3 s# 1"!&/%&$ (3+&"($ 1"#!(2 0 1"(5#s0 1"(&2!(3%*# $(6#
3(,& 3( s$%*#%* )"(.'(! & 1(!#,%* 1"(30')&!%(s)&.
1H

..........3 2.1.............................................................3........................2...............................13 4............TRANSPORT KAO LOGISTIČKA FUNKCIJA SADRŽAJ: 1....................................................................... IZBOR PREVOZNIKA .............. TROŠKOVI TRANSPORTA ..... SPOLJNI TRANSPORT ..1..........................................................2.............................................................. IZBOR TRANSPORTNOG VIDA ......................................................................................... KARAKTERISTIKE VIDOVA SPOLJNOG TRANSPORTA ....5 2..................................................10 3............................. SAOBRAĆAJ KAO PRIVREDNA DELATNOST ......... UNUTRAŠNJI TRANSPORT ............................................................14 5............................... PODELA TRANSPORTA ........................5 2....4 2.....1 PRINCIPI U TRANSPORTU ..........12 4................................................................................... INTERMODALNE USLUGE ..........3 1..........................UVOD .............................16 2 .....1.........................3 2.................

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